The goal of this guideline is to improve the quality of care and treatment outcomes for patients with schizophrenia, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (American Psychiatric Association 2013). Since publication of the last full practice guideline (American Psychiatric Association 2004) and guideline watch (American Psychiatric Association 2009) on schizophrenia, there have been many studies on new pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. Additional research has expanded our knowledge of previously available treatments. The guideline focuses specifically on…

CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO

■ Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a persistent and potentially disabling movement disorder associated with prolonged exposure to antipsychotics and other dopamine receptor blocking agents.

■ Despite the availability of approved TD medications (e.g., valbenazine), diagnosis of this disorder remains complex and education about appropriate treatment is important.

■ Virtual interviews with a cross-disciplinary panel of healthcare professionals (HCPs) were conducted to understand the challenges of diagnosing, assessing, and treating TD virtually.

CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO

Objective: A nominal group process followed by a modified Delphi method was used to survey expert opinions on best practices for tardive dyskinesia (TD) screening, diagnosis, and treatment and to identify areas lacking in clinical evidence.

Participants: A steering committee of 11 TD experts met in nominal group format to prioritize questions to be addressed and identify core bibliographic materials and criteria for survey panelists. Of 60 invited experts…

CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder characterised by irregular movements that most commonly affect movements of the tongue, lips, jaw, and face, and sometimes the peri-orbital areas. In some cases, patients also have irregular movement of the trunk and limbs. These movements are typically choreiform or choreoathetoid in type; although, athetosis of the extremities and axial and limb dystonia are often listed as part of the syndrome, as are gait and trunk posture abnormalities, such as rocking or rotary pelvic movements,.

TD was first described in 1957, 5 y after the introduction of chlorpromazine, when patients who had been exposed to the drug for 2 to 8 weeks showed bucco-oral movements persisting after treatment cessation. In the late 1960s, the term “tardive dyskinesia” appeared. “Tardive” means late onset, which reflects that the condition is seen more commonly in people who have been receiving antipsychotic (neuroleptic) or dopamine receptor blocking (DRB) medication for a prolonged period. However, the relationship between exposure to antipsychotic treatment and vulnerability to TD appears to vary with age: TD tends to emerge in older persons after a relatively short period of treatment with antipsychotic medications…..

CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder in which patients experience abnormal involuntary movements that occur most often in the orofacial region but can also occur in the neck, trunk, upper and lower extremities, and other muscles (eg, diaphragmatic and pharyngeal musculature).1–5 TD can occur during or after stopping treatment with dopamine receptor antagonists or partial agonists, including typical (first-generation) and atypical (second-generation) antipsychotics, and some medications used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, such as metoclopramide.3,6–8 The lifetime prevalence of TD in patients treated with antipsychotics is estimated to be between approximately 15% and 40%, with higher rates reported in older (age >55 years) patients9; higher rates are also observed among women who are postmenopausal.6,10

TD can have a profound negative impact on patients’ day-to-day functioning and may lead to negative physical, cognitive, and psychosocial outcomes.11,12 TD underdiagnosis, lack of awareness that all first- and second-generation antipsychotics have the potential to …

CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a medication-induced hyperkinetic movement disorder associated with the use of dopamine receptor-blocking agents, including first- and second-generation antipsychotic drugs, metoclopramide, and prochlorperazine.

The most common manifestations of TD involve spontaneous movements of the mouth and tongue, but the arms, legs, trunk, and respiratory muscles can also be affected. Less commonly, the prominent feature is dystonia involving a focal area of the body such as the neck. TD can be irreversible and lifelong, with major negative impacts on psychologic health and quality of life.

TD is important to recognize, since early discontinuation of the offending drug offers the best chance of recovery. However, in patients who require ongoing antipsychotic drug therapy for management of psychiatric disorders, symptomatic therapies for TD can help lessen movements, if only partially.

This topic will review the prevention and management of TD. Other aspects of TD are discussed separately. (See “Tardive dyskinesia: Etiology, risk factors, clinical features, and diagnosis”.)

CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFO
  • Tardive Dyskinesia Impact on Quality of Life in Those With Bipolar Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, and Schizophrenia

    Tardive Dyskinesia Impact on Quality of Life in Those With Bipolar Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, and Schizophrenia Investigators of a study looked to analyze the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients diagnosed with bipolar

  • Meta-Analysis of Tardive Dyskinesia Prevalence With Use of Second-Generation Antipsychotics

    Meta-Analysis of Tardive Dyskinesia Prevalence With Use of Second-Generation Antipsychotics Investigators of a meta-analysis looked to compare the prevalence of tardive dyskinesia (TD) during the use of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and/or second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). Studies

  • The Complex Spectrum of Tardive Dyskinesia

    The Complex Spectrum of Tardive Dyskinesia In a continuing medical education program presented at Psych Congress Regionals 2021, faculty presented on a wide range of topics in tardive dyskinesia (TD). The goals of the presentation

  • Lithium and Tardive Dyskinesia

    Lithium and Tardive Dyskinesia On the Psychiatry & Behavioral Health Learning Network, Dr. Goldberg discusses the link between lithium and tardive dyskinesia (TD). While rare, Dr. Goldberg states that there is evidence of lithium causing

  • Understanding the New TD Treatment Guidelines

    Understanding the New TD Treatment Guidelines In this occasional feature, members of the Psych Congress Steering Committee and faculty answer questions asked by attendees at Psych Congress meetings. At this year's Psych Congress Regionals meeting series, Psych Congress Steering

  • Tardive Dyskinesia Facts and Figures

    Tardive Dyskinesia Facts and Figures A look at the big picture Tardive dyskinesia affects an estimated 500,000 persons in the United States. About 60% to 70% of cases are mild, and about

  • What Drugs Cause Tardive Dyskinesia?

    What Drugs Cause Tardive Dyskinesia? The main cause of tardive dyskinesia is long-term use of dopaminergic antagonist medications (antipsychotic medications). Dopamine antagonists that can cause tardive dyskinesia include: Antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics) Butyrophenones: droperidol (Inapsine), haloperidol (Haldol),

  • Medication-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia: A Review and Update

    Medication-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia: A Review and Update The term dyskinesia refers to involuntary muscle movements that can range from slight tremor to uncontrollable movement of the entire body. The tardive dyskinesia

  • 7 Ways to Treat Tardive Dyskinesia

    7 Ways to Treat Tardive DyskinesiaWhen the second-generation antipsychotics were first released in the 1990s there was optimism that these agents might eliminate-or even treat-tardive dyskinesia (TD). They were, after all, derived from clozapine, which