The author of this article gives an overview of tardive dyskinesia (TD). TD can potentially be a permanent movement disorder that is caused by dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) in chronically using them. There are several risk factors associated with TD including certain genetic factors, female sex, African and Caucasian ethnicity, older age, illness duration along with cumulative dose of DRBA, and use of first-generation antipsychotics. Approximately 25% of psychiatric patients taking antipsychotic medication are estimated to have TD, representing a minority compared with the amount of people taking these medications. Prevention of TD is crucial, as stopping the medication causing TD does not always relieve the condition; however, there is no certain way to predict who will develop TD once starting DRBA use.
Reference: Frei K. Tardive dyskinesia: Who gets it and why. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2019;59:151-154. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.11.017