Case Study Highlights Challenges in Diagnosing and Treating Tardive Dyskinesia With Sensory Impairments

This case study examines the case of a 54-year-old male patient with a history of developmental delay, optic neuritis, hearing loss, and major depressive disorder, presenting with worsening ataxia, neck extension, eye-rolling, and dysarthric speech. Initially treated with atypical antipsychotics and later clozapine, his symptoms worsened, necessitating hospitalization and emphasizing the need for staff education on cochlear implant use.

Exploring the Genetic Factors in Tardive Dyskinesia Development and Management

The development of tardive dyskinesia (TD) is influenced by various factors including the type of antipsychotic, dose, duration of treatment, and individual genetic susceptibility. Studies have highlighted the role of genetic variations influencing the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, such as variations in dopamine, serotonin, and cannabinoid receptors, oxidative stress factors, and certain enzymes and transporters like CYP isoenzymes. Understanding these genetic factors is crucial as they contribute to the variability in drug metabolism and response, affecting both the efficacy and the adverse effects of antipsychotics.

Understanding Drug-Induced Movement Disorders: Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, and Management

This article offers a detailed exploration of drug-induced movement disorders, which are often overlooked and underdiagnosed in clinical settings due to various factors such as genetics, environment, and aging. Commonly used classification systems like the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems help categorize these disorders, covering a wide range including myoclonus, drug-induced parkinsonism, and tardive dyskinesias, with antiseizure medications and antipsychotics as primary culprits. 

Understanding and Managing Tardive Dyskinesia and Dystonia: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments

This article covers symptoms, causes, and treatments for tardive dyskinesia and dystonia, both triggered by medications used for mental disorders, especially antipsychotics. Tardive dyskinesia results in involuntary facial movements, while dystonia causes sustained muscle contractions, often affecting the head and neck. While tardive dyskinesia develops gradually and may persist after medication cessation, dystonia can onset rapidly and stem from various causes including infections, tumors, or genetic factors.

Recognizing Tardive Dyskinesia From Other Movement Disorders

In an article from Neurology Live, Laxman Bahroo, DO, and Jonathan R. Isaacson, MD, explore the manifestations of tardive dyskinesia (TD) as well as the distinctions between TD and extrapyramidal symptoms and neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism. Through citing different clinical trials, Dr. Bahroo and Dr. Isaacson review certain misconceptions and treatment options for TD. They note that due to TD’s under-recognition, the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder can be challenging, but is reachable through growing awareness, screening, and observation efforts.

Study Emphasizes Caution in Antipsychotic Prescriptions for High-Risk Groups

A recent case report assessed an 80-year-old man with a history of dementia, bilateral blindness, glaucoma, hearing loss, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia complaining of visual hallucinations. Risperidone was first prescribed, followed by a combination with Quetiapine, and eventually replaced with valproate due to lack of symptom improvement and non-adherence. Three months after stopping antipsychotic medications, he developed orofacial tremors.

Researchers concluded that, when prescribing antipsychotics, physicians must be cautious of tardive dyskinesia (TD) as a potential delayed side effect, and physicians need to monitor for early signs of TD, especially in high-risk individuals. In this case, risk factors included old age, prolonged risperidone use, and abrupt cessation of the drug.

Study Reveals Why Black Americans Face Higher Tardive Dyskinesia Risk

A study shows the increased risk of tardive dyskinesia (TD) among Black individuals in the United States compared with White individuals. The study identifies contributing factors, including health disparities and specific genetic traits in Black populations, which slow down the metabolism of drugs like antipsychotics, elevating TD risk. Moreover, the prescription pattern of first-generation antipsychotics, more strongly linked to TD, to Black Americans by doctors is highlighted. The researchers emphasize the importance of open communication between patients and healthcare providers, especially for those at risk, and highlight the critical role of monitoring medication usage, dosage, and treatment duration in TD symptom management.

Comprehensive Study Unveils Insights into Vocal Tics: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

In a study, researchers reviewed the symptoms, causes, and treatment of vocal tics, which are characterized by involuntary verbal sounds or words ranging from subtle to pronounced. Researchers noted that tic disorders, including Tourette’s syndrome, are among the diagnostic criteria for such conditions, often originating in childhood, but possibly emerging in adulthood. Vocal tics can also accompany conditions like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, or traumatic brain injury. Some medications, including antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants may induce tics. Medications like aripiprazole or haloperidol, and therapy such as comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics, can help manage tics and their impact on daily life.