Study Reveals Why Black Americans Face Higher Tardive Dyskinesia Risk

A study shows the increased risk of tardive dyskinesia (TD) among Black individuals in the United States compared with White individuals. The study identifies contributing factors, including health disparities and specific genetic traits in Black populations, which slow down the metabolism of drugs like antipsychotics, elevating TD risk. Moreover, the prescription pattern of first-generation antipsychotics, more strongly linked to TD, to Black Americans by doctors is highlighted. The researchers emphasize the importance of open communication between patients and healthcare providers, especially for those at risk, and highlight the critical role of monitoring medication usage, dosage, and treatment duration in TD symptom management.

Comprehensive Study Unveils Insights into Vocal Tics: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

In a study, researchers reviewed the symptoms, causes, and treatment of vocal tics, which are characterized by involuntary verbal sounds or words ranging from subtle to pronounced. Researchers noted that tic disorders, including Tourette’s syndrome, are among the diagnostic criteria for such conditions, often originating in childhood, but possibly emerging in adulthood. Vocal tics can also accompany conditions like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, or traumatic brain injury. Some medications, including antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants may induce tics. Medications like aripiprazole or haloperidol, and therapy such as comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics, can help manage tics and their impact on daily life.

Medscape Quiz Tests Knowledge of Tardive Dyskinesia Differential Diagnosis

Acknowledging that diagnosing tardive dyskinesia (TD) can be challenging since its symptoms can be confused with those of mental illness or other drug side effects, Medscape offers a quiz to test the knowledge of the differential diagnosis of TD.

Multiple choice questions of the “Fast Five Quiz: Tardive Dyskinesia Differential Diagnosis” include: “Which signs and symptoms are most indicative of TD,” “Which observation helps distinguish tardive tremors from cerebellar or psychogenic tremors,” and more. 

Emerging Synthetic Cathinones and Psychostimulant-Related Movement Disorders

Researchers of a study looked into psychostimulants, a group of substances that have effects similar to amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone, highlighting connections between psychostimulant use and movement disorders.

The researchers noted that psychostimulant-related movement disorders are a known issue seen in emergency departments worldwide. Chronic and permanent movement disorders are less commonly encountered but can manifest as a combination of symptoms such as agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, hyperthermia, and cardiovascular dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms of these disorders involve monoaminergic signaling, particularly dopamine, but other pathways are also involved. Researchers concluded that there are common mechanisms that connect the use of psychostimulants and various movement disorders.

Unraveling Tardive Syndrome: Involuntary Movements and Sensory Complaints Persist Despite New Antipsychotic Drugs

Researchers in a recent study gathered information on tardive syndrome (TS) as TS continues to persist despite the availability of newer antipsychotic drugs. TS is a secondary syndrome resulting from the use of dopamine receptor-blocking agents, and it can manifest in different forms such as dyskinesia, dystonia, akathisia, tremors, and parkinsonism. These symptoms often persist even after discontinuing the medication and may worsen over time. Treatment options for TS involve discontinuation or replacement of the medication with atypical antipsychotics like quetiapine or clozapine. Additionally, dopamine depleters such as tetrabenazine and its derivatives (deutetrabenazine and valbenazine) are used to alleviate symptoms with fewer side effects. Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus has also shown effectiveness in treating TS, particularly when medications fail to improve symptoms.